China is continually expanding its monetary capacity to the point that it undermines the spot of the world financial head of the USA. Its solidarity is for the most part in trades where it dominates because of its modest work, once in a while up to multiple times less expensive than somewhere else, just as its enhancement and nature of items. Its strength is with the end goal that 9 out of 10 businesspeople have effectively utilized a Chinese item. In this unique circumstance, where a wide range of items are blended, organization openings with different nations are not uncommon.
Thailand is not a special case. Thought about an arising economy, the nation has figured out how to secure itself as the second biggest economy in the Southeast Asia, after Indonesia however in front of Malaysia, regardless of the Asian financial emergency of 1997 and the torrent of 2004. Same as China, the Thailandese economy depends basically on sends out, especially in the auto, food preparing and hardware ventures, and on the travel industry, which acquires a lot of unfamiliar cash. At long last, the reinforcing of exchange among China and Thailand, particularly through the China-Asean Free Trade Agreement, ought to grow exchange between the two nations to $100 billion over the course of the following three years, or twofold what it is presently
Being able to understand the import of items among China and Thailand is certainly not a simple assignment. Hence, we clarify in this aide all that you need to think about bringing in the middle of China and Thailand, from transportation to guidelines. Follow bit by bit our manual for get the most suitable import for your requirements, regardless of whether you are a start-up, an enormous organization, a SME or just a singular wishing to import or among China and France.
Sea freight from China to Thailand
DocShipper alert : Sea cargo is the optimum option for you to select if :
- You don't care about the time the delivery will take
- Your products take less than 2 m³
- You want the cheapest way to move your items
Trade relations between China and Thailand
China is the second biggest economy in the world and one of Thailand's most significant exchanging accomplices. The two nations having consistently extremely close relations, it is subsequently normally that the sea exchange streams between these two forces are significant. For sure, it is over 90% of its unfamiliar exchange of Thailand, which is finished by the ocean way, and the greater part are connected with China. Their locational closeness isn't in vain more than just Laos isolates them. Building the Kra Canal, a waterway project crossing Thailand, in order to avoid wasting any time while crossing Malaysia, is the image of the connection between these two nations.
One year ago, China, Thailand's second-biggest fare market, purchased $29.2 billion worth of products, comparable to 11.8% of Thailand's all out sends out. Nonetheless, the Covid emergency is undermining supply chains and could make Thailand lose almost 2 billion baht (around 58.67 million euros).
The main shipping seaports in Thailand
Laem Chabang port
The port of Laem Chabang is able to deal with about 6.9 million TEU per year. As of now, four terminals are overseen by privately owned businesses.
Laem Chabang Port is situated in Tungsukhla sub-region, Sriracha region and Banglamung sub-area of Chon Buri region. The port covers around 1026 hectares.
It is normal that before the current year's over, the limit of the second basin will be big enough to handle 3.5 million TEU.
Laem Chabang has gone through two periods of advancement up until now and is presently in the third stage of development. This third stage will carry the limit of the port to a limit of 18 million TEUs. Right now, after the initial two stages of extension, the port can deal with up to 10 million TEUs. The extension expects to make the port, the main one in the sub-Mekong area and ultimately being able to compete with the port of Singapore.
Port of Bangkok
Otherwise called Klong Toey, the Port of Bangkok is the biggest port in Thailand and is able to deal with about 1.5 million TEUs (around 20 feet per year). It is a global port situated on the Chao Phraya River in the Khlong Toei area, Bangkok.
Up to this point, the port was one of the 100 most active compartment ports on the planet. The port likewise offers a traditional wharf for stacking and dumping freight.
The port can carry a wide range of merchandise, from compartments, any sort of products (contingent upon the country's regulations obviously), synthetic substances, gas and numerous others.
As of now, the port handles 54% of Thailand's absolute fares and imports. The project of expansion incorporates another two-kilometer long, in order to be able de host huge ships straightforwardly. It likewise incorporates plans to fabricate twin rail lines that will interface the upper east of the nation straightforwardly to the port.
By and large, in the event that we talk about most extreme size, the port can deal with 25,000 deadweight tonnage. Altogether, it has roughly 84 berths. Obviously, it additionally has mechanical gear that can deal with a few tons just as a few stockpiling stockrooms
Sriracha Harbour Deep Seaport
Sriracha Harbor Deep Seaport has been the primary port in Thailand ready to oblige boats up to 100,000 extra weight. The area of Sriracha Harbor has made it an open port 95% of the year.
*All these ports are available by means of Chinese ports like Shanghai Port Ningbo/Zhoushan Port yet in addition other more modest ports like Tianjin, Guangzhou, Xiamen, and so on
Transport time between China and Thailand ports
You can find underneath the normal travel time (counted in days) of the main ports among Thailand and China:
|Bangkok||Laem Chabang||Sriracha Harbour|
The travel times showed are inexact and may change contingent upon a few variables, so we urge you to be adaptable. Besides, they do exclude pick-up systems, customs and delivery time.
DocShipper tip: Are you looking for costs or guidance? Our group will concentrate on your case to furnish you with more exact data about your shipment via ocean from China. Snap on our button to finish up our internet-based structure and our team will reach you before 24 hours!
What container can I choose for shipment between Thailand and China ?
3 kinds of containers’ size exist, they are used for personal and also commercial cargo:
- 40' HQ container, which has a capacity of 76 m3 (around 24 pallets)
- 40' container, which has a capacity of 67 m3 (around 20 pallets)
- 20-foot container, which has a capacity of 33 m3 (around 10 pallets)
For pallets of 120 x 100 cm (with a maximum height of 230 cm)
Full container or FCL (Full Container Load)
- The FCL which means "Full Container Load" assigns a vehicle where the products consume all the space of the container, and it is saved for only one client from the begging to the end of the transport. The container is sealed therefore any entering will be noted. This implies less taking care of and lower costs.
A FCL shipment is the best for security and productivity from 15CBM. Indeed the deduction of taking care of tasks makes the cost of a FCL filled at 15CBM more attractive than a LCL at 15CBM.
DocShipper's recommendation: You better choose a FCL shipment if your volume is more than 13/14 m3 in order to save money on dealing with costs and to guarantee the security of your container.
LCL (Less than Container Load)
Delivery is for the individuals who don't transport a full container and want to slip the empty space of a same compartment with different products. This arrangement will just charge you for the space utilized for your products and consequently makes shipments more beneficial. Your products will travel with those of different transporters whose objective is on the course of your container, and you will pay for taking care of tasks to get the merchandise out of the compartment.
This choice is intended for you if:
- You transport little volumes
- You intend to bunch a few shipments to deconsolidate them later
- Your merchandises are excessively weighty for airship cargo
DocShipper's recommendation: You should think of airship cargo if your shipping is under 2CBM. Air fret is such a ton quicker than maritime fret. A LCL might need 40 days via ocean to complete the transportation, while an airship cargo will require maximum 5 days.
Benefits of the FCL
- Because it is seal, it is more safe
- There is less handling
- Perfect for big volumes of goods
Disadvantages of the Full Container
- The transportation time is long
- There is a minimum volume of 15 m³.
Benefits of the Maritime Groupage
- You just compensation for the volume utilized
- Viable with a wide range of products
- Cheaper solution
Disadvantages of Ocean Groupage
- The transport takes more time
- Commitment to palletize
- Higher danger of ruined goods because of more handling
Ro-Ro is an appellation that is used to call boats that are exclusively made for the transportation of trucks, railroad vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers. To the extend they can also carry cars, vehicles or little boats situated at the passageway and exit of the boat.
What are the reasons to use a RORO from China?
It is the most practical, cheap and most secure approach to move your large freight. Those cargoes are regularly cargoes that must be moved in only one piece with specific trailers from the departure to the arrival. The roro's will be secure thanks to the hold of the roll-on/roll-off holder, which is shielding them from the climate and expected harm during the transportation.
OOG (means Out of Gauge) alludes to "out of gauge". It exists two kinds of OOG compartments: the Open Top Container and the Flat Rack Container.
The open one is utilized for the transport of weighty products that requires a crane for stacking and dealing with.
The flat rack holder is utilized to move very large products in width and or height.
This kind of equipping is made to save a huge amount of time.
Bulk alludes to the transport of bulk products conveyed in the hold of the boat. Bulk freight and general freight don't have the same kind of storage, for instance mass solids and fluids (like coal, oil, minerals and so on). These boats are called bulk carries.
Those reefer holders are planned for the transport of products that can prerish or synthetic substances that require a specific temperature. It exists reefer holders of different sizes, which are all furnished with the best equipment to control temperature, just as moistness levels.
Are you searching for an answer for transport a too massive merchandise (goods like a boat or this kind of merchandise)? Bless your lucky stars! Reach us, we will help you to find the best answer based on your needs.
How much does sea freight between China and Thailand cost?
To compute the cost of the cargo, the information on the weight and the volume of the merchandise is fundamental since it is the weight/volume proportion which will decide the price.
The volume and weight proportion are equal to: "1 ton = 1 m3
- Most of the transportation world concurs that the essential cargo ought to be determined by the weight/volume proportion following the standard of 1 ton = 1 m3. The rate is determined in paying units (called PU), for example the mass communicated in tons, or in volume communicated in cubic meters, "to the benefit of the transporter", for example the higher worth.
For example: A heap has a total mass of 6 tons with a total volume of 9 m3. Consequently, at that point, we will count 9 PU. Another example is for instance a mass of 7 tons and a total volume of 6 m3, then we will be counting 7 UP.
- For a full compartment, the cargo rate will rely upon the sort of holder utilized and the transportation line that is used.
DocShipper's recommendation: For all requests, contact our sea cargo trained professional, who chips away at a made to order premise to give you the best arrangement at a very attractive price. Finish up our online structure. You can likewise examine our committed page for more data on this strategy for transport: Sea freight.
Air freight between China and Thailand
DocShipper tip : Air freight might be the best solution for you if :
- If you are in a hurry or you have a deadline requirement
- Your cargo is less than 2 m³.
The different types of air freight
Even if this kind of transportation is very costly and not good for the environment, airship cargo permits you to deliver merchandise over huge distances and in a very short time. Airship cargo is a very solid and very quick strategies for transportation, all other the planet. It permits you to deliver your products anyplace. Notwithstanding, this method for transportation stays super expensive and bad for the planet.
Main airports in Thailand
In Thailand, there are 6 global air terminals: Phuket, Koh Samui, Hat Yai, Suvarnabhumi, Don Muang, and Chiang Mai. Other airports are used for non-military purpose such as domestic flights.
Airport of Don Muang
The international Don Muang airport is one of two global air terminals in Bangkok. The air terminal is viewed as one of the oldest worldwide air terminals on the planet.
Don Muang Airport was in 2004 working with 80 aircrafts and conveying 25 million travelers. It is situated in Don Muang. The airport shut in 2006 after the launch of the new Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport, prior to continuing tasks (primarily domestic flights) after one year in 2007.
Don Muang is basically utilized by low-cost aircrafts such as Air Asia, Nok Air, Thai Lion Air…
International airport of Phuket
The International Airport of Phuket is one of the biggest air terminal in the nation after Suvarnabhumi Airport. The air terminal serves all big destinations in Asia.
It is situated around 30 km from the regulatory capital of the Phuket Island.
Global travelers come mostly from Asia-Pacific and Europe. The air terminal set a standard of 15.1 million takeoffs in 2016, an increment of 17.8% compared to 2015.
International aiport of Suvarnabhumi
The international airport of Suvarnabhum in Bangkok is Thailand's principal air terminal since 2006. The appellation Suvarnabhumi alludes to the legendary "Place where there is Gold" which appears in Buddhist texts.
The air terminal is 32 km away of the east of downtown Bangkok. It is the fundamental center for all air transport in the country. Suvarnabhumi is relied upon to build its ability by this year and along these lines further develop freight benefits and also passengers flights.
Its terminal structure is the third biggest on the planet with 56.3 hectares and the airports has the tallest tower of control.
Main aiports in China
- CTU – Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
- SZX – Shenzhen Baoan International Airport
- KMG – Kunming Changshui International Airport
- XIY – Xi’an Xianyang International Airport
- HKG – Hong Kong International Airport
- PEK – Beijing Capital International Airport
- CAN – Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
- PVG – Shanghai Pudong International Airport
- SHA – Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport
Why do we choose air transport?
Speed and reliability
In spite of the fact that vehicle, ocean and land, street or rail have their advantages, air transport is profoundly valued for its speed, which permits, specifically for specific classifications of products like staples, plants and animals, to move in a brief amount of time.
Severe guidelines and controls in air terminal advantage air freight transporters. Freight getting regions and air terminals are exceptionally checked and safe, restricting the danger of robbery or harm. Also, dealing with is minimal and travel time is decreased.
The great thing is that even the most far away areas can be served, via air to the closest air terminal and afterward by road.
The most air freight specialist organizations offer web based following, so you can actually look at the situation with your freight continuously, in real time, for all the steps of your shipping.
Cost of packaging
Since products are sent in extremely light package, the requirement for bundling materials is diminished.
Conventional or express air freight
Express airship cargo is usually used to send bundles or tiny volumes. Organizations working express administrations normally offer door to door or place of-conveyance arrangements. The cost will clearly be higher per kilo, yet this strategy ensures a quick and productive assistance to get the goods conveyed as fast as could really be expected. Dispatch organizations, for example, FedEx/DHL/TNT/UPS deal with everything from conveyance to your home or distribution center.
Standard airship cargo is worked by customary aircrafts like Air China, Emirates, ... It will be perfect for you if the volume of your merchandise is somewhere in the range of 1 and 2 m3 (which is about 2 pallets).
Please visit our page dedicated to express air freight and do not hesitate to contact our experts for any questions or additional information by filling out our online form. We will respond in less than 48 hours!
How much does sea freight between China and Thailand cost?
Airship cargo enjoys the benefit of being the quickest method of transportation. For the most part, it is utilized for the conveyance of little and light cargoes, or for dire conveyance cases.
Contrasted with other transportation strategies, airship cargo will be more costly on the off chance that you have a huge volume.
While picking this strategy, you have to realize roughly how much airship cargo your delivery will cost. We can assist you with seeing how the rate is determined.
The IATA prime rate
For shipments, it is the decreasing weight scale, with the minimum of taxes.
- More than 3500 kg: the price is 3€ per kg
- Between 3500 and 2500 kg: the price is 4€ per kg
- Between 2500 and 1000 kg: the price is 5€ per kg
With a price per kilo of 6€.
The minimum of perception is 600 €.
Pay attention that it isn't really the gross load of your products that will be utilized to compute this rate, it is the volumetric weight that will be used.
What is volumetric weight?
An identicalness rule is applied for air transporters to compute the volumetric weight. We use the accompanying guidelines:
- For express airship cargo: 1 m³ = is 200 kgs
- Traditional airship cargo: 1 m³ = is 167 Kgs
Alerte DocShipper :
Don’t forget that aircrafts and air terminals add extra expenses and charges. (Danger protection charge, fuel charge, LTA charge, security charge)
We move your freight via air to Thailand, though Bangkok or Phuket and also Chiang Mai, and many more. We have a lot of partnerships all over those two countries. Those connections permit us to ship your products from any city in China, such as Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Xiamen.
Rail freight between Thailand and China
DocShipper advise : Rail freight is the solution for you if :
- You are in a hurry or you have a deadline requirement
- Your items total volume is very big
Transport via train between China and Thailand
Regardless of whether the rail transport enjoys the benefit of being quicker than the ocean and more affordable than the air, Thailand doesn't have an extremely evolved rail organization. In this manner, it is still truly challenging to ship your freight in the necessary amount while ensuring its protection and conveyance time.
In any case, the vehicle via train can be a reasonable arrangement on the off chance that one considers well these angles.
The principal rail line stations in Thailand
Hua Lamphong station, located downtown Bangkok, is right now the beginning stage of the train lines leaving for the entire country. The four fundamental lines are:
- the eastern organization, from Aranyaprathet, (Cambodian line)
- the northeast organization, from the extent that Ubon Ratchathani and the Lao-Thai Bridge at the Laotian line
- the northern organization, from the Chiang Mai
- the southern organization, from the Malaysian line
DocShipper tip : Because of the constant evolution of the railway freight business, contact our team for more information and more details. Check our dedicated article for more details as well: Rail freight services
Door-to-door delivery between China and Thailand
Door to door service is the most widely recognized and helpful way of transportation your products. For this situation, the client is liberated from everything that the shipment evolves. Indeed, we deal with the entire procedure, from stacking and gathering your products, to the port/air terminal/rail terminal, cleaning the customs fees and conveyance at the arrival. This service is the most easy and quick method of transportation we offer.
By our network in both countries and our years of experience, we guarantee you an efficient service from beginning to end, this service will spare you time and cash!
What are the benefits of door-to-door service?
A door to door prestation, implies that we get your item any place you need and convey it to your preferred location, right to your doorstep or stockroom. This implies you get a full help, regardless of whether it's sea, air, express or rail, and it can make your life simpler.
Our staff will assist you with following your shipment at all times
A professional team
At Docshipper we value our staff and their meticulousness. At the point when you request our services, you get an exceptionally customized service.
Security of goods
At the point when you share your freight with us, you can be certain that it will be conveyed securely to the arrival. Every one of our accomplices ensure a quality encounter.
DocShipper tip :
Searching a protected and dependable door to door support among China and Thailand? Reach us! We'll be glad to assist you with tracking down the right total package for you. DocShipper is here to help you by dealing with the subtleties of all your strategic requirements. Don't hesitate to contact us
Customs Clearance for goods imported from China
Regarding this process, we will manage it. It is a fundamental stage for the import from China to the remainder of the world. It is vital to be award and to understand the principles and commitments that apply in Thailand.
All steps will be detailed for you to know what items are permitted to be imported and which are dependent upon specific limitations, and how the obligations and expenses are determined.
Discover what merchandise can be brought in Thailand
Sometimes, products got stuck in customs for whatever the reason. More often, it is because of the absence of data of shippers.
First and foremost:
- Have every one of the subtleties of the merchandise or product you need to import.
- Additionally get every one of the insights concerning the exporter.
- Be certain that the items you need to import are acknowledged inside Thailand.
Customs clearance for goods imported :
The government of Thailand controls everything concerning the importation of specific products into and outside of Thailand. The controls can appear as:
- an definitive boycott, which implies that you are not permitted to import the merchandise
- a limitation, where you need an authorization to import the merchandise.
- Indecent articles/writing/pictures
- Obscene materials
- Merchandise with the Thai public banner
- Counterfeit money, securities or coins
- Counterfeit regal seals
- IPR merchandise (for example music tapes, programming, and so on)
- Fake marked merchandise
- Importation of narcotics, aliments and dietary products needs earlier endorsement from the Department of Health more specifically from the Food and Drug Administration.
- The import or product of collectibles or show-stoppers such as art and every other goods of that kind, if enlisted, requires approval from the Department of Fine Arts.
- Imports of weapons and explosives, firecrackers and live and copy guns require a proper permit from the Department of the Interior. Some kind of weapons, for example, electric shock gadgets need an authorization and a license before the importation.
- The Cosmetic Act expresses that, for reasons for general wellbeing assurance, any merchant of controlled cosmetic items should give the name and area of the delegate office and the spot of assembling or capacity of the corrective items, the classification or sort of the items that will be imported, and the foremost parts of the beauty care products.
Thailand permits the transitory importation of merchandise for career expos and shows by means of the ATA carnet framework. These carnets are given by the Board of Trade of Thailand for a most extreme time of one year. It is really suggested that you utilize the administrations of a traditional dealer (an ATA carnet), all together not to experience troubles when bringing in and once again sending out to Thailand.
Sudden traditions controls can cause extra costs that you ought to know about. Everything entering Thailand is dependent upon examination, particularly as a first-time shipper. Your initial shipment will be 99.99% assessed. Assessment expenses ought to be expected just as capacity charges if necessary.
Procedure and customs contact
When the chance of bringing your goods in Thailand, you should have the tariff arrangement number. These numbers joined with the place of departure characterize the customs obligation rates to be paid.
Decide the "HS code" of the product
It is the code of the item that came with the origin with the value of it, that will decide what will be the customs process.
The Harmonized System (called the HS code) that has a validity in over 207 nations (95% of the world exchange). It is a precise and exclusive classifying numeration, that relegates a number to each sort of good or product subject to worldwide exchange.
You can check here the composition of an HS Code
On account of a "red line" (very high-risky delivery), the basic records that have to be given to Customs for trade approval are:
- Declaration for exportation
- Buy receipt
- Product permit (if material)
- Other applicable reports like list, item fixings, and so on
The BoL (bill of lading) is a transportation proof. It sets up the details of an agreement between the transporter and the transport organization, with everything included such as the take-off point and the arrival details. For airship cargo, it is usually called an AWB (which stands for Air Waybill).
Other logistics services
Supplier management in China
To furnish with a total help administration, we will ask pretty much every one of the aspects of your products. Then, we are going to make sure that the provider will give the necessary records for validation (Conformity’s certificates, and so on) and look at the condition and packing.
Quality help ensured! Our specialists communicate in English/Chinese/French.
Visit our committed page : Sourcing service
The measure of assurance for transport is determined with premium rate x pronounced sum
The protection rate changes as indicated by the strategy for transportation utilized, the sort of merchandise and the insurance agency... In order to be aware of the exact amount, the supporter has to proclaim the measure of costs that is related to the transportation just as the worth of the merchandise.
Check our dedicate article : Transport insurance
Packaging and repackaging
For the security of your products during transportation, packing is fundamental. They ensure an ideal solidness during the transport, regardless of whether they are transported with different products. We are experts in packing, and we will be glad to make your everything safe and secure for your products: cartons, bubble wrap, sticky tape, and so on
Check our dedicate page : Packing services
Warehousing and storage
In China, we have many distribution centers in all essential urban areas. We guarantee the capacity of your merchandise prior to deliver them in Thailand. Assuming you need to bunch a few orders from various providers or split a holder whose substance will be later dispatched, this is our specialty, we are here for you!
Check our article: Warehousing services
Our involvement with Asia and our various partnerships, have permitted us to figure out how to deal with a wide range of shipments and to track down the right arrangements and altered transportation offers. Our group of specialists is available to answers all of your questions and will prompt you on the potential choices for your shipment and give you the best offers! Reach us
FAQ - Freight between China and Thailand | Rates – Transit times – Duties & Taxes – Advices
✅DocShipper can deal with my item from beginning of my shipment to end of it?
Yes. DocShipper is specialized in dealing with the item from the beginning to the end. Our sourcing office helps your business to buy your products and to check your items quality control. Then, at that point, comes the sending office, which handles all global coordination activities. At last, our 3PL administration will deal with all your E-Commerce activities, going from stock administration to B2C conveyance through request planning.
✅ Using freight method what are the transport duration between Europe and China?
4 choices exist to ship your freight among Europe and China. You can settle on an express arrangement (or DHL, FedEx...) for a delivery in maximum 5 days. Customary airship cargo will be fundamentally more slow with a deferral of around 7 days. Rail cargo addresses the center ground among air and ocean cargo, around 15 to 20 days delay and around 35 to 40 days via ocean.
✅ Is DocShipper able to combine my shipments from numerous providers?
Following quite a while of involvement, we generally attempt to discover ideal answers for our clients. Consequently, our distribution centers ensure a union help once the merchandise have been gotten. Nonetheless, for additional data, it is smarter to contact our business staff as a coordination ought to be done thoroughly to stay away from capacity costs.
✅ What data do I have to give to get a transportation quote rapidly?
Because we want to offer quality assistance and unique services, everything depends upon the situation. In this way, the measurements, the volume, the exact weight, the exact address of takeoff and of the destination and many other factors will be essential for us to know in order to give you a quotation.
✅ Between Europe and China, what is the cheapest way of transportation?
The appropriate response will rely upon the exact volume and the exact weight of your freight. We, at DocShipper, suggest you utilize these measurements: In the case where you deliver no more than 0.5 m³, and between 0.5 m³ and 1.5/2 m³ we suggest you airship cargo. For groupage ocean cargo (also called LCL) and for measurements going from 2 m³ and 13/14 m³, it will be important to decide on the booking of full container(s) (FCL) via ocean.
DocShipper China | Approvisionnement - Contrôle qualité - Logistique
Alibaba, Dhgate, made-in-china... Beaucoup connaissent des sites internet pour s'approvisionner en Asie mais combien tombe sur une arnaque ?! Il est très risqué de payer un fournisseur Asiatique à l'autre bout du monde en se basant uniquement sur des promesses ! DocShipper vous propose des services d'approvisionnement complet intégrant les besoins logistiques : achat, contrôle qualité, personnalisation, obtentiondes license, transport...
La communication est importante, c'est pourquoi nous nous efforçons de discuter de la manière la plus appropriée pour vous!